Hepatitis is caused by viruses and Bacteria (Leptospira sps.) and can be Acute(sudden) or Chronic(prolonged). The easy infection of viruses is due to immuno deficiency in humans against the viruses.
The Major Symptoms of hepatitis are Malaise(Inactivity), Anorexia(Loss of appetite), nausea, jaundice, Liver failure, Cirrhosis(Liver Fibrosis), Hepatic coma, Atrophy of Glands etc.
Hepatitis is categorised into 5 types depending on different viruses causing it into namely :
1. Hepatitis A – Infectious Hepatitis or epidemic hepatitis.
2. Hepatitis B – Serum Hepatitis or Serum Jaundice.
3. Hepatitis C – Non A non B hepatitis.
4. Hepatitis D
5. Hepatitis E
Hepatitis A is ahighly infectious disease caused by Enterovirus reffered to as Hepatitis A Virus(HAV) and the incubation peiod for this disease is about 2 – 8 weeks and the disease is called Short Incubation Hepatitis. The virus replicates in the liver of the host.
Treatment of this disease can be done by immunising with inactivated viral vaccine. This disease in comtaminted in the water and feed, so sanitory conditions should be improved to prevent the disease.
Hepatitis B is a parentally transmitted disease. It is caused by HBV, a hepadna virus which is present in the blood. It shows few symptoms and sometimes if passes off asymptomatically. The incubation period is 1 – 6 months so the disease is called Long Incubation Hepatitis.
It is transmitted from mother to child, between intravenous drug abusers, also in Male Homosexuals.
The disease causes Cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The disease can be prevented by using sterlised needles for testing and can be treated by vaccinising with Hepatitis B vaccine.
Hepatitis C is Non A non B hepatitis with an incubation of 7 – 8 weeks. This disease is common in parental drug abusers and also through Blood transfusion.
Hepatitis D & E are less common diseases with very less effect and symptoms. Hepatitis D virus requires the presence Of hepatitis B virus for its multiplication.